BOS كإسلوب لتقييم مستوى الاداء

BOS كإسلوب لتقييم مستوى الاداء

Behavioral Observation Scales ( BOS )

BOS كإسلوب لتقييم مستوى الاداء هو اسلوب لتقييم اداء الموظف الذى يمكن ان يستخدم كجزء من Appraisal Process و هذه الطريقة او الاسلوب مثل طريقة BARS لكنه يتضمن process لتحديد المهام الاساسية لوظيفة معينة و لكن الاختلاف ان الموظف يتم تقييمه على اساس مدى تكرار ظهور اداءهم للسلوك المطلوب أداء فعال

و على ذلك فان الـ Score الذى يحصل عليه الموظف عن كل سلوك تم ملاحظته يمكن ان يتم جمعهم لكى نخرج بالـ Score العام لمستوى الاداء و فى مثل هذه الحالات ان المقاييس المختلفة للسلوك يتم وزنها او يتم عمل ما يسمى weight لكل سلوك و هذا يعنى ان كل سلوك يكون له score مختلف بحسب تعلق هذا السلوك بتحقيق اهداف الوظيفة او اهمية هذا السلوك فى اداء مهام الوظيفة و يتم حساب هذا الـ Weighting   بحسب اهميته بالنسبة لإجمالى الوظيفة

bos sample

ان الادوات التى تستخدم فى BOS هى الاستبيانات من النوع Ordinal Scale Questionnaire و تنقسم هذه الاستبيانات الى اربعة انواع :

  1. NOMINAL :

هى التى تستخدم بما يسمى Labeling Variable دون استخدام اى قيم كمية مثل الاستبيانات عن منطقة المعيشة او لون الشعر او نوع الجنس

  1. ORDINAL :

هو الذى يكون فيه ترتيب للقيم الهامة و المحددة مثل الاستبيان الذى يسأل عن مستوى الرضا عن الخدمة التى تقدم مثلا

  1. INTERVAL :

هو استبيان رقمى و لا نعرف فقط الترتيب و لكن يجب ان ندرك تحديدا الفرق بين القيم مثل الاستبيان عن درجات الحرارة فيجب ان ندرك الفرق بين 40 درجة ، 60 درجة و يمكن استخدام هذا الاستبيان فى التحاليل الاحصائية مثل النزعة المركزية Central Tendency حيث يمكن قياسها عن طريق :

  • Mode : حيث يتم تحديد اكثر الارقام المتكررة فى قائمة معينة من الارقام

  • Median : حيث يتم تحديد القيمة التى تقع فى منتصف مجموعة من القيم فمثلا اذا كان هناك قائمة تتكون من 7 قيم فان القيمة رقم 4 هى median

  • Mean : و هى المتوسط الحسابى لمجموعة من القيم و يتم حسابها بجمع كل القيم و قسمة الناتج على عدد القيم

  1. RATIO :

هو من اكثر الاستبيانات التى تخرج كم كبير من البيانات التى يمكن الاستفادة بها فى التحليل الاحصائى

و فى النهاية نؤكد على ان الاداه التى نستخدمها فى BOS هى Ordinal Scale Questionnaire و الاسئلة فى هذا الاستبيان تكون متعلقة بتكرار السلوك او ادلة تشير الى مدى قوة الموظف فى اداء هذا السلوك

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Job design

Job design

Job design specifies the contents of jobs in order to satisfy work requirements and meet the personal needs of the job holder, thus increasing levels of employee engagement. As observed by Wall and Clegg (1998: 265):

Jobs are created by people for people. Whether deliberately or by default, choices are made about which tasks to group together to form a job, the extent to which job holders should follow prescribed procedures in completing those tasks, how closely the job incumbent will be supervised, and numerous other aspects of the work. Such choices are the essence of job design.

Jobs and roles

A distinction can be made between jobs and roles. A job is an organizational unit consisting of a group of defined tasks or activities to be carried out or duties to be performed. A role is the part played by individuals and the patterns of behaviour expected of them in fulfilling their work requirements. Jobs are about tasks, roles are about people. This distinction means that while jobs may be designed to fit work requirements, roles are developed as people work flexibly, demonstrate that they can do more and take on different responsibilities. Role development (as covered in the next section of this chapter) happens informally, in contrast to the more formal approaches to job design (considered below).

Factors affecting job design

Deciding on the content of a job starts from work requirements because that is why the job exists. When the tasks to be done have been determined it is then necessary to consider how the jobs can be set up to provide the maximum degree of intrinsic motivation for those who have to carry them out with a view to improving performance and productivity. Consideration also has to be given to another important aim of job design: to fulfil the social responsibilities of the organization to the people who work in it by improving the quality of working life, an aim that, as stated in Wilson’s (1973) report on this subject, depends upon both efficiency of performance and satisfaction of the worker.

Clearly, the content of a job depends on the work system in which it exists and the organization structure in which it is placed. Job design therefore happens within the context of work and organization design, as described in this chapter, but it is also affected by the following factors:

  • the characteristics of jobs;
  • the characteristics of task structure;
  • the process of intrinsic motivation;
  • the job characteristics model;
  • the implications of group activities.

The characteristics of jobs

There are three fundamental characteristics shared by all jobs:

  1. Job range – the number of operations a job holder performs to complete a task.
  2. Job depth – the amount of discretion a job holder has to decide job activities and job outcomes.
  3. Job relationships – the interpersonal relationships between job holders and their managers and co-workers.

Task structure

Job design requires the assembly of a number of tasks into a job or a group of jobs. An individual may carry out one main task that consists of a number of interrelated elements or functions.

Or task functions may be allocated to a team working closely together in a manufacturing ‘cell’ or customer service unit, or strung along an assembly line. In more complex jobs, individuals may carry out a variety of connected tasks (multitasking), each with a number of functions, or these tasks may be allocated to a team of workers or be divided between them. In the latter case, the tasks may require a variety of skills that have to be possessed by all members of the team (multitasking) in order to work flexibly. Complexity in a job may be a reflection of the number and variety of tasks to be carried out, the different skills or competencies to be used, the range and scope of the decisions that have to be made, or the difficulty of predicting the outcome of decisions.

The internal structure of each task consists of three elements: planning (deciding on the course of action, its timing and the resources required), executing (carrying out the plan) and controlling (monitoring performance and progress and taking corrective action when required). A completely integrated job includes all these elements for each of the tasks involved. The worker, or group of workers, having been given objectives in terms of output, quality and cost targets, decides on how the work is to be done, assembles the resources, performs the work, and monitors output, quality and cost standards. Responsibility in a job is measured by the amount of authority that someone has to do all of these things.

The ideal arrangement from the point of view of engagement and motivation is to provide for fully integrated jobs containing all three task elements. In practice, management and team leaders are often entirely responsible for planning and control, leaving the worker responsible for execution. To a degree, this is inevitable, but one of the aims of job design is often to extend the responsibility of workers into the functions of planning and control. This can involve empowerment – giving individuals and teams more responsibility for decision-making and ensuring that they have the training, support and guidance to exercise that responsibility properly.

Intrinsic motivation

The case for using job design techniques is based on the premise that effective performance and genuine satisfaction in work follow mainly from the intrinsic content of the job. This is related to the fundamental concept that people are motivated when they are provided with the means to achieve their goals. Work provides the means to earn money, which as an extrinsic reward satisfies basic needs and is instrumental in providing ways of satisfying higher-level needs. But work also provides intrinsic rewards related to achievement, responsibility and the opportunity to use and develop skills that are more under the control of the worker.

The job characteristics model

The most influential model for job design is the job characteristics model developed by Hackman and Oldham (1974). They identified five core job characteristics:

  1. Skill variety: the degree to which a job requires an employee to perform activities that challenge his or her skills and abilities.
  2. Task identity: the degree to which the job requires completion of an identifiable piece of work.
  3. Task significance: the degree to which the job outcome has a substantial impact on others.
  4. Autonomy: the degree to which the job gives an employee freedom and discretion in scheduling work and determining how it is performed.
  5. Feedback: the degree to which an employee gets information about the effectiveness of his or her efforts – with particular emphasis on feedback directly related to the work itself rather than from a third party (for example, a manager).

Hackman and Oldham explained that if the design of a job satisfied the core job characteristics the employee would perceive that the work was worthwhile, would feel responsible for the work and would know if the work had been completed satisfactorily. The outcome of this would be high-quality work performance and high job satisfaction as a result of intrinsic motivation.

The implications of group activities

Jobs should never be considered in isolation. All job holders belong to formal or informal groups and the interrelationships that exist in such groups should be considered when looking at the content of an individual job.

 

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5 Ps Of HRM

One Of The Six Models of HRM Is :

5 Ps Of HRM

5ps of hrm

The most familiar models defining what HRM is and how it operates are the 6 models, today we will overview about 5 Ps Of HRM

these six models are : 

  1. The matching model of HRM

  2. The Harvard model of HRM

  3. Contextual model of HRM

  4. European model of HRM

  5. The hard and soft HRM models

  6. 5 Ps Of HRM

The 5-Ps model of HRM :

As formulated by Schuler (1992) the 5-P model of HRM describes how HRM operates under the five headings of:
1. HR philosophy – a statement of how the organization regards its human resources, the role they play in the overall success of the business, and how they should be treated and managed.

2. HR policies – these provide guidelines for action on people-related business issues and for the development of HR programmes and practices based on strategic needs.

3. HR programs – these are shaped by HR policies and consist of coordinated HR efforts intended to initiate and manage organizational change efforts prompted by strategic business needs.

4. HR practices – these are the activities carried out in implementing HR policies and programmes. They include resourcing, learning and development, performance and reward management, employee relations and administration.

5. HR processes – these are the formal procedures and methods used to put HR strategic plans and policies into effect.

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HR Strategies

HR STRATEGIES

Lets divide HR Strategies into 2 sections :

  1. General HR strategies : include :

    • High-performance management

    • High-commitment management

    • High-involvement management

  2. Specific HR strategies

today we will discuss the first section as follow :

HR strategies indicate what the organization wants to do about its human resource management policies and practices and how they should be integrated with the business strategy and each other. They set out aspirations that are expressed as intentions, which are then converted into actions.

they should be regarded as a statement of the organization’s collective endeavour. They are not just a laundry list of everything that the organization would like to do. HR strategies were described by Dyer and Reeves as ‘internally consistent bundles of human resource practices’

A strategy, whether it is an HR strategy or any other kind of management strategy must have two key elements: there must be strategic objectives (ie things the strategy is supposed to achieve), and there must be a plan of action (ie the means by which it is proposed that the objectives will be met).

The purpose of HR strategies is to articulate what an organization intends to do about its HRM policies and practices now and in the longer term to ensure that they contribute to the achievement of business objectives. HR strategies may be defined formally as part of a strategic HRM process that leads to the development of overall or specific strategies for implementation by HR and, vitally, line managers.

General HR strategies :

General strategies describe the overall system or bundle of complementary HR practices that the organization proposes to adopt or puts into effect in order to improve organizational performance. The three main approaches are summarized below.

High-performance management : 

High-performance management aims, through high-performance work systems (bundles of practices that enhance employee performance and facilitate their engagement, motivation and skill enhancement), to make an impact on the performance of the organization in such areas as productivity, quality, levels of customer service, growth and profits.

High-performance working practices include rigorous recruitment and selection procedures, extensive and relevant training and management development activities, incentive pay systems and performance management processes.

 

High-commitment management :

One of the defining characteristics of HRM is its emphasis on the importance of enhancing mutual commitment. High-commitment management has been described as ‘A form of management which is aimed at eliciting a commitment so that behaviour is primarily self-regulated rather than controlled by sanctions and pressures external to the individual, and relations within the organization are based on high levels of trust.’

 

High-involvement management :

‘High-involvement work practices are a specific set of human resource practices that focus on employee decision-making, power, access to information, training and incentives.’

‘High-involvement work practices aim to provide employees with the opportunity, skills and motivation to contribute to organizational success in environments demanding greater levels of commitment and involvement.

The term ‘high-involvement’ used to describe management systems based on commitment and involvement, as opposed to the old bureaucratic model based on control.

 

Examples of general HR strategies :

  • A local authority: as expressed by the chief executive of this borough council, its HR strategy is about ‘having a very strong focus on the overall effectiveness of the organization, its direction and how it’s performing; there is commitment to, and belief in, and respect for individuals, and I think that these are very important factors.’

  • A public utility: ‘The only HR strategy you really need is the tangible expression of values and the implementation of values… unless you get the human resource values right you can forget all the rest’ (managing director).

  • A manufacturing company: ‘The HR strategy is to stimulate changes on a broad front aimed ultimately at achieving competitive advantage through the efforts of our people. In an industry of fast followers, those who learn quickest will be the winners’ (HR director).

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الأخطاء ال9 فى تقييم الاداء

الأخطاء ال9 فى تقييم الاداء

الأخطاء ال9 فى تقييم الاداء  .. ان تقييم و قياس مستوى الاداء له عيبين رئيسيين :

  • التلوث المعيارى Criterion Containment

  • الخلل Deficiency

على سبيل المثال ان نموذج التقييم الذى يقيم مستوى اداء رجل الشرطة Police Officer على اساس واحد و هو عدد اللصوص الذين تم القبض عليهم فان هذا هو الخلل Deficiency لأنه فشل فى ان يتضمن الجوانب الاخرى للاداء الوظيفى مثل التسجيل فى سجل الادانة و غيرها

فعندما يكون هناك من المعايير التى لها صلة بالوظيفة و التى يتم تقييم موظفيها على اساسها و تتضمن فى نموذج التقييم فان ما يحدث هو Criterion Containment  او التلوث المعيارى بسبب عدم العدالة فى تقييم الموظفين بناء على عوامل ليس لها صلة بالوظيفة

على سبيل المثال : ان التلوث المعيارى يحدث اذا تم تقييم ميكانيكى سيارات على اساس النظافة الشخصية على الرغم من هذا السلوك ليس له علاقة بالاداء الوظيفى او ليس هو السلوك المؤثر فى مستوى الاداء المطلوب

لذلك فان معايير الاداء تشير الى مستوى الاداء المتوقع من الموظف تحقيقه و لذلك فان هذه المعايير يجب ان تكون محددة بوضوح لدرجة ان الموظف يعرف تحديدا ما الذى تتوقعه المؤسسة منه ان يحققه فى عمله او ينجزه فى عمله .

فعلى سبيل المثال : تحميل البضائع على سيارة نقل فى خلال ساعة فان هذه المهمة اكثر وضوحا من ان يقال ” العمل بسرعة “

و ليس فقط استخدام معايير واضحة للاداء هو الذى يساعد الموظف على مباشرة السلوك و لكن ايضا يساعد المشرفين و المديرين ان يقوموا بالتقييم بدقة اكثر .

و لتطبيق المعايير يجب على المؤسسة ان تستخدم نموذج تقييم فعال و لكى يكون نموذج التقييم فعال فيجب ان يتم تحديد الاساس لهذا التقييم كما يجب ان يشير الى ابعاد الاداء Dimensions الذى يتم تقييمه على اساسها بالاضافة الى استخدام مقياس متدرج Rating Scale للحكم على الاداء

الاخطاء التسعة التى سوف نتحدث عنها اليوم لتقييم الاداء هى :

  1. Rater Errors

  2. Halo Effect

  3. Recency Error

  4. Primacy Error

  5. Harshness Error

  6. Leniency Error

  7. Central Tendency Error

  8. Contrast Error

  9. Stereotyping

  10. Similar to me Error

  • الانطباع الشخصى و التحيزات Rater Error :

ان الانطباع الشخصى و التحيزات ربما تؤثر على كيف نقوم بتقييم مستوى اداء الافراد و ما الذى يجعل من هذه الاخطاء صعبة التصحيح ؟ هو ان الملاحظ دائما لا يعرف كيف تم ارتكاب هذا الخطأ لاننا اذا فهمنا الاخطاء و كيف تحدث سوف نكون قادرين على اتخاذ خطوات لتقليل هذه الاخطاء

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  • Halo & Horn Effect

هذا الخطأ يحدث عندما يكون الموظف كفؤ جدا فى احد المهام و يحصل على درجة تقييم عالية فى كل عناصر التقييم و ذلك على العكس من Horn Effect حيث يكون الموظف ضعيف فى احد المهام و على الرغم من ذلك فإنه يحصل على تقييم ضعيف عام على مستوى اداؤه

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  • Recency Error :

هذه المشكلة تحدث عندما يقوم القائم بالتقييم بعمل weight  مرتفع للانشطة الحديثة التى قام بها الموظف و يقوم بتقليل weight عن الانشطة التى مضى عليها وقت معين خلال فترة التقييم

فعلى سبيل المثال اذا تخيلنا رجل مبيعات بأحد الشركات يتم تقييم مستوى اداؤه عن فترة 6 اشهر مثلا و قد حقق هذا الرجل 80% من المبيعات فى اول 3 شهر و 20% من المبيعات فى الشهور الثلاثة الاخرى

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  • Primacy Error :

ان هذه المشكلة هى عكس ما يحدث فى Recency Error حيث يقوم القائم بالتقييم هنا على تحديد weight  اعلى لأنشطة الموظف التى مضى عليها فترة من الوقت ، weight اقل للانشطة الحديثة

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  • Harshness Error

هذا الخطأ يحدث عندما يقوم المدير او القائم بالتقييم بتقييم الموظف تقييم ايجابى مرتفع على غير الحقيقة و هذا النوع على عكس خطأ اخر يسمى Strictness Error حيث يحدث هذا الخطأ الاخير عندما لا يفترض المدير مستوى مناسب لاداء الموظف و كفاءته طبقا للمعايير الموضوعة و يقوم المدير بتقييم الموظف بتقييم منخفض

لمزيد من المعلومات رجاء الضغط هنا

نستكمل باقى الاخطاء التسعة لتقييم الاداء فى المقالة القادمة باذن الله و نتمنى لكم الافادة و لمزيد من المقالات فى ادارة الموارد البشرية رجاء الضغط هنا

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5 Ways To Build A Winning Company Culture

5 Ways To Build A Winning Company Culture

 

What does a good work culture look like?

5 Ways To Build A Winning Company Culture. A positive culture is one that sets the tone correctly. This includes the way every employee communicates and engages with each other and customers.

One company to take note of is Facebook. Their culture is famous for encouraging its engineers to “move fast and break things”.

Setting a strict culture with little flexibility can create a stuffy environment. Employees will feel pressured to act a certain way and it can even stunt creativity.

A top culture will give the employees the freedom to check their phones in work hours, chat about the latest television dramas and offer them the chance to get together for regular bonding sessions.

If you get the team working together in unison, your business will thrive as a result.

Think of a rowing team, where each member of the boat must move in perfect harmony to gain the most speed and momentum.

However, the question is: how do you achieve this?

Here are a few ideas to get you going.

1. Use your experience

An obvious inclusion perhaps, but one that is so relevant and important.

Cast your mind back to your previous jobs and try writing down a few bullet points about what aspects of the work culture you liked and didn’t like.

Did the CEO treat the team to a meal out if you hit targets every month?

Were you encouraged to have a beer every Friday afternoon and discuss the successes/failures of the past week with the wider team?

Or on the other hand, did your old manager try to micro-manage everyone?

Collate these thoughts and you can start to form a basis on what is the winning formula to culture success.

2. Variety is key

When it comes to the recruitment process, you need to look for a candidate who complements you and the rest of the team.

If you already have outgoing and loud people, maybe you should look for a thinker with a natural means of processing information in a more analytical way.

Alternatively, if this candidate will be working with you, have a look at some of your closest friends and note down your favourite qualities about them.

You can start to understand which traits make you smile, make you loyal and make you work harder for them.

To find intelligent and top candidates, take a leaf out of Amazon’s book and challenge them with a series of peculiar questions.

For example, “how do you detect whether or not a word is a palindrome?” Or “if you had to pick a famous Hollywood actor to play you, who would it be and why?”

This will allow you to establish who works well under pressure and how the certain candidate’s mind works.

3. Communicate

A great working culture is also about keeping the channel of communication between the hierarchy and employees open and available.

As we recently covered in our previous blog about how to deal with disruptive employees, listening is a powerful tool.

Let your employees know that the door is always open for an informal chat to voice their concerns or ideas.

You can even hold team meetings which give them the opportunity to talk about them in a group environment so they don’t feel vulnerable or isolated.

If you highlight problems or encourage ideas, your team will be happier and be willing to give their all to the cause.

4. Get the whole team onside

This point isn’t just about investing time and effort into your employees. It’s highlighting the fact that a good work culture involves their families too.

After every long hard day, most employees will go home to their wives, husbands, partners, parents or friends.

Putting on events which includes everyone will give you the opportunity to sell your dreams, your visions and the work philosophy to the people your employees hold dearest.

American airline company, JetBlue, followed this idea and saw their profits rise from $58 million in 2009 to $168 million in 2013.

The fact is, having a supportive family and friends behind every employee will keep them happy and motivated to go above and beyond for your business.

5. Don’t segregate

As a business, it’s easy to separate areas like sales, marketing, customer support etc.

However, the key to culture is getting the wider business working as one.

Once again, having team events like an annual sports day could be a fun way to get people together.

But instead of letting your employees pick their teams, do a random draw in front of the whole business.

This should mix each department up and give employees an opportunity to get to know others.

Plus a bit of friendly competition is always a top way to get banter levels up and create a positive vibe across the business.

Wrapping up

Whatever methods you implement, just remember to keep things open and light-hearted. Employees burdened by rules and micro-management is a business destined to fail.

Establish your core principles as a business and get your team buying into it. As a result, you’ll start to see both the short and long-term benefits.

تخطيط الاداء

تخطيط الاداء

Performance Planning

performance planning

ان تخطيط الاداء هى العملية التنظيمية لتحديد و توصيل اهداف المؤسسة و اهداف الافراد المتوقعة من الموظف و لذلك فان خطط الاداء يتم تحديدها بالتعاون بين عمل المشرف و الموظف المرؤوس له فهم معا يقومون بتحديد الاداء المتوفع و الاهداف التى يجب تحقيقها خلال فترة معينة يتم فيها مراجعة هذا الاداء

ان هذه العملية تساعد على تحسين التواصل و المناقشة حول خطة تطوير المستقبل الوظيفى للموظف و سوف نناقش فى هذا الموضوع عدد من المسائل الهامة التى تتعلق بتخطيط الاداء :

  • معايير الاداء Performance Standard

  • الادارة عن طريق الاهداف Management by Objectives (MBO)

  • وضع الاهداف Goal Setting

نبدأ حديثنا اليوم عن وضع الاهداف Goal Setting :

ان نظرية وضع الاهداف تعتبر واحدة من افضل نظريات بث الحماس فى مساعدة النفس self-help و تطوير و تنمية الشخصية  Personal Development & Growth حيث ان الاهداف المحددة تؤدى الى اداء المهام بشكل افضل من الاهداف الغامضة

و لذلك فان اهداف الموظف يمكن توضيحها من خلال تخطيط التطوير و الاداء مع الانتباه الى مستوى الاداء المطلوب و النتائج المرغوب فيها . فان تحديد الاهداف يكون اكثر فعالية عندما يتم دمجه مع التغذية العكسية Feedback لانه فى هذه الحالة يمكن متابعة التقدم فى تحقيق هذه الاهداف

يجب ان تتوافر 5 عناصر فى كل هدف و عند توافر هذه العناصر يمكن ان يطلق على هذه الاهداف Smart Goals و هذه العناصر هى :

  1. هدف محدد Specific

  2. قابل للقياس Measurable

  3. قابل للتجقيق Attainable

  4. ذات صلة  Relevant

  5. لابد من تحقيقه فى وقت معين و تاريخ محدد Time -bound

اولا : يجب ان يكون الهدف محدد Specific  :

ان الاهداف المحددة تتضمن تحديد ما الهدف الذى نرغب فى تحقيقه او ترغب المؤسسة فى تحقيقه و لذلك فان وصف الهدف ايضا لابد ان يكون محدد و مركز بالاضافة الى انه يحتاج الى ان يتم فهمه بسهولة كما يجب ان يكون مكتوبا حتى يسهل توصيله الى الموظفين و اخبارهم به بسهولة و وضوح

ثانيا : يجب ان يكون الهدف قابل للقياس Measurable :

يكون الهدف قابل للقياس اذا كان قابل للعد Quantifiable و لذلك فان قياس الاهداف هو ان تستطيع تقييمه لتحديد اذا كان قد تم تحقيق هذا الهدف من عدمه

و كذلك يتم قياس الهدف عن طريق الحصول على المعلومات الاساسية عن هذا الهدف او انشاءه و هو ايضا يهدف الى تحديد ما هى العملية او الانجاز الذى نستطيع قياسه

ثالثا : قابل للتحقيق Attainable :

بمعنى انه يجب ان يكون هناك فرصة واقعية تستطيع من خلالها تحقيق هذا الهدف و ليس معنى ذلك ان الهدف سهل التحقيق و لكن لابد ان يكون الهدف فيه تحدى ايضا. و لكى يتحقق ذلك لابد ان توافق قيادة المؤسسة على ان الهدف هام و الوقت مناسب لتحقيقه و ان المصادر المتاحة سوف تركز على هذا الانجاز

رابعا : ان يكون الهدف ذات صلة Relevant  :

ان الاهداف الفردية يجب ان تكون مناسبة و متوافقة مع الاهداف الاستراتيجية و اهداف تسيير العمل او مانسميه operation و لذلك فان كل هدف ترغب المؤسسة فى تحقيقه يجب ان يكون احد الانجازات الذى يحرك المؤسسة فى اتجاه تحقيق اهدافها الاستراتيجية

و ذلك يعنى ان الاهداف ذات الصلة لا تتعارض مع اهداف المؤسسة و لذلك فان الاهداف قصيرة المدى هى ذات صلة و متوافقة مع الاهداف بعيدة المدى للمؤسسة

خامسا : لابد من تحقيقه فى وقت معين و تاريخ محدد  Time -bound :

ان تحقيق الاهداف يجب ان يكون مقيد بوقت و الاهداف المحددة بوقت تتضمن بعض المهام التى يجب تنفيذها فى الحال بالاضافة الى مهام يجب تحديدها بوقت للبداية و وقت للنهاية

كما يجب ان يتضمن بعض النقاط الحالية عن ما هى المهام التى يجب ان يتم تقييمها بالاضافة الى انه تحديد الوقت الذى يجب ان يتم فيه انجاز الهدف يساعد على تركيز المجهودات فى اتجاه هذا الانجاز

نستكمل مناقشتنا و حديثنا عن باقى المسائل التى تتعلق بتخطيط الاداء فى مقالة اخرى ان شاء الله . المحتوى الذى تم تقديمه اليوم هو جزء من الموضوعات التى نناقشها فى الدورة التدريبية المؤهلة للحصول على الاعتماد الدولى للعاملين فى مجال الموارد البشرية و شهادة PHRI 2019

مقدمة فى ادارة بيانات الموظفين

مقدمة فى ادارة بيانات الموظفين

Employee Data Management

ان صاحب العمل عادة يقوم بعمل سجلات للموظفين و تسمى Personnel Files كأحد طرق حفظ المستندات التى تتعلق بعلاقة الموظفين بالشركة

ان التوثيق فى ملفات العاملين هو من الامور الهامة الداعمة للبيانات فعلى سبيل المثال هى مفيدة للاطلاع على تاريخ الجزاءات التأديبية التى تدعم اتخاذ القرار لفصل موظف بدون مسئولية قانونية على الشركة

بالاضافة الى انه ملفات العاملين تمكن صاحب العمل من متابعة مستويات الاداء و الاجازات و الاتفاقيات المرتبطة بالتوظيف

و فى اطار مناقشتنا لموضوع ادارة بيانات الموظفين سوف نتناول 4 موضوعات :

  1. انواع بيانات الموظفين Types of employee data
  2. سياسة التسجيل Recordkeeping Policy
  3. الحفاظ على دقة البيانات Maintain Accurate Records
  4. اعتبارات اخرى Other Considerations

انواع بيانات الموظفين  Types of employee data

اولا : البيانات الاساسية : و التى تتضمن اسم الموظف بالكامل ، رقم الهوية ، العنوان ، تاريخ الميلاد

ثانيا : مستندات التوظيف Hiring Documents  : و التى تتضمن الوصف و التوصيف الوظيفى ، طلبات التوظيف ، السير الذاتية

ثالثا : مستويات الاداء الوظيفى و التطوير : و التى تتضمن تقييم مستوى الاداء ، الاجراءات التصحيحة لتصحيح الاداء ، الجزاءات التأديبية ، المكافآت ، قرارات الترقيات ، الشهادات المتعلقة بالدورات التدريبية ، الشهادات العلمية

رابعا : الاتفاقيات المتعلقة بالتوظيف : و التى تتضمن اتفاقيات التوظيف ، عقود اتحاد العمال ، اتفاقيات عدم المنافسة ، اتفاقيات الحفاظ على الاسرار

خامسا : التعويضات : هى المستندات المتعلقة بالتعويضات و المعلومات عن المميزات و من امثلتها :

  • Beneficiary Forms
  • Payroll Records
  • Time Cards & Records

سادسا : المعلومات التى تتعلق بالفصل من الخدمة : انه من الافكار الجيدة الاحتفاظ بالمستندات المتعلقة بفصل الموظفين فى ملف منفصل لما قد ينشأ عنه نزاعات فى المستقبل

سابعا : الملفات السرية : هناك بعض من السجلات التى يجب حفظها فى ملفات سرية منفصلة عن ملفات الموظفين و التى تتضمن :

  • السجلات الطبية و المستندات المتعلقة بالاصابات و الاعاقة
  • المستندات المتعلقة بطلبات التعويضات للعاملين
  • المستندات المتعلقة بالاجازات المرضية للعاملين و اسرهم
  • معلومات التصديق على التوظيف
  • وثائق الحجز التحفظى على الاجور

كان هذا الموضوع من احد الموضوعات التى نتناولها فى برنامج اعتماد العاملين فى ادارة الموارد البشرية من HRCI و الحصول على شهادة PHRI و لمزيد من التفاصيل عن البرنامج بالكامل رجاء الضغط هنا 

و نستكمل باقى نقاشنا عن هذا الموضوع فى لقاء اخر و لمزيد من المقالات رجاء الضغط هنا

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Organization design

Organization design

Organization design is the process of deciding how organizations should be structured in terms of the ways in which the responsibility for carrying out the overall task is allocated to individuals and groups of people and how the relationships between them function. The aim is to ensure that people work effectively together to achieve the overall purpose of the organization. The basic question of ‘Who does what?’ is answered by line managers but HR specialists are also involved in their capacity of helping the business to make the best use of its people. HR professionals can contribute to organization design or redesign activities by using their understanding of the factors affecting organizational behaviour and their knowledge of the business as a whole.

It is generally assumed that organization design is a logical and systematic affair, based on accepted principles and using analytical techniques that produce an inevitable ‘best’ result. But as explained below there is always organizational choice. There are certain guidelines to which consideration needs to be given, and organization reviews should be based on analysis, as also discussed below. But, ultimately, the ways in which an organization functions and therefore its structure (or sometimes its lack of structure) are contingent on the situation. In accordance with socio-technical theory this consists of the people who work in the organization and the systems and techniques it uses to achieve its purpose.

Organizational choice

There is never one best way of organizing anything. There is always a choice. It is necessary to bear in mind that structural requirements in organizations or organizational units will vary widely according to what they are there to do and the activities they have to carry out. That is why there are no absolute principles such as the traditional precepts of ‘unity of command’ (one person, one boss) or the need to limit spans of control (the number of functions or people for which a manager is responsible). It all depends. Burns and Stalker (1961) established in their study of electronic companies in Scotland that in stable conditions a highly structured or ‘mechanistic’ organization will emerge that has specialized functions, clearly defined jobs, strict administrative routines and a hierarchical system of exercising control. However, when the environment is volatile, a rigid system of ranks and routine will inhibit the organization’s speed and sensitivity of response. In these circumstances the structure is, or should be, ‘organic’ in the sense that it is a function of the situation in which the enterprise finds itself rather than conforming to any predetermined and rigid view of how it should operate.

Organization reviews

In exercising organizational choice an organizational review, as described below, will help in the evaluation of the alternatives, but the law of the situation, as described originally by Mary Parker Follett (1924), should prevail. This states that the work that people are required to do depends on the objective requirements of the situation. The final choice will depend upon the context and circumstances of the organization – as Lupton (1975) pointed out, it is important to achieve best fit.

Organizations may evolve organically without any conscious attempt to design them. But if a deliberate design programme is planned this should be based on the evidence that can be produced by a formal organization review conducted in the following stages:

  1. Activity analysisto establish what work is done and what needs to be done. Two questions need to be answered: 1) are all the activities required properly catered for?; 2) are any unnecessary activities being carried out?
  2. Structural analysisto determine how activities are grouped together; the number of levels in the hierarchy; the extent to which authority is decentralized to divisions and strategic business units (SBUs); where functions such as finance, HR, IT and research and development are placed in the structure (eg as central functions or integrated into divisions or SBUs); the relationships that exist between different units and functions (with particular attention being given to the way in which they communicate and cooperate with one another). Attention would be paid to such issues as the logic of the way in which activities are grouped and decentralized; the span of control of managers (the number of separate functions or people they are directly responsible for); any overlap between functions or gaps leading to the neglect of certain activities; the existence of unnecessary departments, units, functions or layers of management; the clarity with which individual responsibilities and accountabilities are defined.
  3. Diagnosisto identify (on the basis of the activities and structural analyses) the reasons for any structural problems facing the organization or function.
  4. The choicein the light of the analyses and diagnosis of how the business or part of it should be designed or revised.
  5. planto implement any revisions to the structure, possibly in phases.

Checklists covering the points that should be considered in analysing activities and structures are set out in the organization design toolkit . When conducting the review the following factors should be taken into account.

Changes in the nature of organizations

As noted by Parker et al (2001: 418): ‘Organizations… differ from the rather static and inflexible enterprises of earlier times. Greater flexibility is required to enable the rapid delivery of low-cost, high-quality and customized products, and to provide increasingly powerful and demanding customers with seamless service.’ They also noted that the use of teamworking and other flexible forms of working continues to grow, distinctions between departments are disappearing as organizations become more integrated, and IT has changed the way in which work is conducted. These considerations may indicate that a traditional hierarchical and rigid structure is inappropriate and a more flexible approach is required.

Minimum critical specification

In accordance with systems theory  and the principle of equifinality (the premise that multiple organizational forms are equally effective), Huczynski and Buchanan (2007: 89) suggested that: ‘It is not necessary to specify in detail the organization structure and the duties of each member. If an organization can develop its own method of operating and change that as circumstances require, then it will be necessary only to detail the basic and most significant aspects. This approach to organization design is called minimum critical specification.’

Strategic choice

As noted above, there is always choice about what form an organization structure should take. Child (1972) explained that in making such choices the leadership group (the dominant coalition) had to be persuaded to influence the organization structure through an essentially political process. He called this process ‘strategic choice’. Choice analysis regards debate and negotiation in the social networks existing in organizations as integral to decision-making on organizational structures.

Successful organization design

Organizations are not static things. Changes are constantly taking place in the business itself, in the environment in which the business operates, and in the people who work in the business. There is no such thing as an ‘ideal’ organization. The most that can be done is to optimize the processes involved, remembering that whatever structure evolves it will be contingent on the circumstances of the organization. An important point to bear in mind is that organizations consist of people working more or less cooperatively together. Inevitably, and especially at managerial levels, the organization may have to be adjusted to fit the particular strengths and attributes of the people available. The result may not conform to the ideal, but it is more likely to work than a structure that ignores the human element. It is always desirable to have an ideal structure in mind, but it is equally desirable to modify it to meet particular circumstances, as long as there is awareness of any potential problems that may arise. This may seem an obvious point, but it is frequently ignored by management consultants and others who adopt a doctrinaire approach to organization, often with disastrous results.

The worst sin that organization designers can commit is that of imposing their own ideology on the organization. Their job is to be eclectic in their knowledge, sensitive in their analysis of the situation and deliberate in their approach to the evaluation of alternatives.

Research conducted by Whittington and Molloy (2005) indicated that to achieve success in organization design it is necessary to:

  • obtain top management support, especially personal commitment and political support;
  • avoid piecemeal, uncoordinated change initiatives by making a strategic business case that anticipates implications across the entire organization;
  • achieve substantive, rather than tokenistic, employee involvement in the change process, moving beyond communication to active engagement;
  • invest in communications with external stakeholders, including customers, suppliers and financial stakeholders;
  • involve HR professionals closely, right from the start – involving HR has been proved to positively impact on a range of performance outcomes;
  • maintain effective project management disciplines;
  • build skilled change management teams – with the right mix of experience and abilities – that can work together.

High-performance working

High-performance working

High-performance working was defined by Combs et al (2006) as the sum of the processes, practices and policies put in place by employers to enable employees to perform to their full potential. They referred to employee participation and flexible working arrangements as examples of such systems that have a direct impact on ways of working and therefore flow through to job design.

Sung and Ashton (2005) defined high-performance work practices as a set or ‘bundle’ of 35 complementary work practices covering three broad areas:

  • High employee involvement work practices – eg self-directed teams, quality circles and sharing/access to company information.
  • Human resource practices – eg sophisticated recruitment processes, performance appraisals, mentoring and work redesign.
  • Reward and commitment practices – eg various financial rewards, family-friendly policies, job rotation and flexible hours.

Lean manufacturing

Lean manufacturing or lean production, often known simply as ‘Lean’, is a process improvement methodology developed by Toyota in Japan. Lean focuses on reducing waste and ensuring the flow of production in order to deliver value to customers. It concentrates initially on the design of the process so that waste can be minimized during manufacture. It then examines operations in order to identify opportunities to improve the flow of production, remove wasteful practices and engage in continuous improvement. Various tools are available such as ‘FiveS’, which is a workplace methodology that uses a list of five words starting with the letter ‘S’ (sorting, straightening, systematic cleaning, standardizing and sustaining). Reference to these enables a dialogue to take place with employees on how work should be done.

But as noted by the CIPD (2008: 11), the success of Lean depends not so much on the tools but on its approach to work. Lean is implemented by communities of people who carry out and supervise the work and may include stakeholders such as customers. Lean team members are encouraged to think flexibly and be adaptable to change. They have a sense of ownership of what they do and achieve.

CASE STUDIES

Work organization: W L Gore

As described by the CIPD (2008: 25–26), W L Gore, which is best known for its GORE-TEX® fabrics, has a non-hierarchical, flat organization structure (a ‘lattice’ structure). There are no traditional organization charts, no ranks or job titles and no chains of command nor predetermined channels of communication. What is important when recruiting new people is that they have the right fit with Gore’s culture. There are no rigid job specifications. Instead, associates make a commitment to contribute individually and collectively to work areas or projects according to their skills. Individuals are encouraged to take an interest in a wide variety of job areas or projects. Provided the core responsibilities within their role are carried out, associates can then stretch and build on their role to suit their interests, aspirations and the business needs. Gore’s ‘lattice’ structure gives associates the opportunity to use their own judgement, take ownership of work areas and access the resources they need for projects to be successful. Gore’s core values and ways of working are built on the principles of ‘smart working’. Its unique culture, which fosters creativity, self-motivation, participation and equality, has proved to be a key contributor to associate satisfaction and retention.

Flexible working: B&Q

Flexible working arrangements have been extended at B&Q in association with its diversity strategy. The main components of its flexible working policy are:

  • term-time contracts available to parents and grandparents with children/grandchildren up to the age of 16 years (18 if the child is disabled);
  • job-share for employees who do not want – or are unable – to work full-time; online job-share register available to help individuals find a job-share partner;
  • staggered start/finish times, allowing for personal commitments/interests;
  • part-time hours;
  • split shifts to fit in with employees’ personal commitments;
  • dual store contracts, allowing employees to work at more than one location;
  • one employee/two roles, allowing employees to develop new and different skills, benefit from multiskilling and work in more than one area of the business;
  • home/remote working, allowing employees to work from home or away from their normal workplace on an occasional basis;
  • career breaks of 3 to 12 months can be taken for any reason;
  • child care vouchers available across the organization;
  • maternity, paternity and adoption policies enhanced above the statutory minimum;
  • shared maternity/paternity leave; unpaid additional leave can be taken by father/partner where both parents work for B&Q and mother returns to work;
  • IVF leave: one week paid time off for IVF treatment;
  • paid compassionate or carer’s leave: one week off per year.
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